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Why This Book Matters:

White Fragility assesses the past to create a conclusion about the present difficulties white people face in speaking about racism in America.

The Big Takeaways:

  1. Race is biologically inaccurate.
    1. If The justification of race as anything more than a social construct is wrong because our physical attributes vary due to the adaptations of our ancestors.
  2. Race as a social construct can form race as a hierarchy.
    1. Our physical differences are used to justify unequal treatment among people.
  3. Pseudoscience justified the enslavement of African Americans.
    1. The proof scientists claimed of African Americans being inferior to their European American counterparts aided in the abuse and mistreatment of African Americans.
  4. Prejudice and Discrimination differ from racism.
    1. Racism is an elaborate system, whereas prejudice and discrimination are more surface-level.
  5. A combination of privilege, pretty language, and self-righteousness prevents Whites from seeing when they’re racist.
    1. Racism is not always intentional; however, when addressed, Whites dismiss being racist in situations where they sincerely thought they weren’t being racist.

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